Wednesday, April 30, 2008

Ajax Interview Questions And Answers Set - 1

Ajax Interview Questions And Answers Set - 1

What's AJAX?
AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) is a newly coined term for two powerful browser features that have been around for years, but were overlooked by many web developers until recently when applications such as Gmail, Google Suggest, and Google Maps hit the streets.

Asynchronous JavaScript and XML, or Ajax (pronounced "Aye-Jacks"), is a web development technique for creating interactive web applications using a combination of XHTML (or HTML) and CSS for marking up and styling information. (XML is commonly used, although any format will work, including preformatted HTML, plain text, JSON and even EBML).
The Document Object Model manipulated through JavaScript to dynamically display and interact with the information presented
The XMLHttpRequest object to exchange data asynchronously with the web server. In some Ajax frameworks and in some situations, an IFrame object is used instead of the XMLHttpRequest object to exchange data with the web server.
Like DHTML, LAMP, or SPA, Ajax is not a technology in itself, but a term that refers to the use of a group of technologies together. In fact, derivative/composite technologies based substantially upon Ajax, such as AFLAX, are already appearing.
Ajax applications are mostly executed on the user's computer; they can perform a number of tasks without their performance being limited by the network. This permits the development of interactive applications, in particular reactive and rich graphic user interfaces.
Ajax applications target a well-documented platform, implemented by all major browsers on most existing platforms. While it is uncertain that this compatibility will resist the advent of the next generations of browsers (in particular, Firefox), at the moment, Ajax applications are effectively cross-platform.
While the Ajax platform is more restricted than the Java platform, current Ajax applications effectively fill part of the one-time niche of Java applets: extending the browser with portable, lightweight mini-applications.

Ajax isn’t a technology. It’s really several technologies, each flourishing in its own right, coming together in powerful new ways. Ajax incorporates:
* standards-based presentation using XHTML and CSS;
* dynamic display and interaction using the Document Object Model;
* data interchange and manipulation using XML and XSLT; * asynchronous data retrieval using XMLHttpRequest;
* and JavaScript binding everything together.

Who’s Using Ajax ?
Google is making a huge investment in developing the Ajax approach. All of the major products Google has introduced over the last year — Orkut, Gmail, the latest beta version of Google Groups, Google Suggest, and Google Maps — are Ajax applications. (For more on the technical nuts and bolts of these Ajax implementations, check out these excellent analyses of Gmail, Google Suggest, and Google Maps.) Others are following suit: many of the features that people love in Flickr depend on Ajax, and Amazon’s search engine applies similar techniques.
These projects demonstrate that Ajax is not only technically sound, but also practical for real-world applications. This isn’t another technology that only works in a laboratory. And Ajax applications can be any size, from the very simple, single-function Google Suggest to the very complex and sophisticated Google Maps.

Who’s Using Ajax ?
Google is making a huge investment in developing the Ajax approach. All of the major products Google has introduced over the last year — Orkut, Gmail, the latest beta version of Google Groups, Google Suggest, and Google Maps — are Ajax applications. (For more on the technical nuts and bolts of these Ajax implementations, check out these excellent analyses of Gmail, Google Suggest, and Google Maps.) Others are following suit: many of the features that people love in Flickr depend on Ajax, and Amazon’s search engine applies similar techniques.
These projects demonstrate that Ajax is not only technically sound, but also practical for real-world applications. This isn’t another technology that only works in a laboratory. And Ajax applications can be any size, from the very simple, single-function Google Suggest to the very complex and sophisticated Google Maps.

At Adaptive Path, we’ve been doing our own work with Ajax over the last several months, and we’re realizing we’ve only scratched the surface of the rich interaction and responsiveness that Ajax applications can provide. Ajax is an important development for Web applications, and its importance is only going to grow. And because there are so many developers out there who already know how to use these technologies, we expect to see many more organizations following Google’s lead in reaping the competitive advantage Ajax provides.
Moving Forward

The biggest challenges in creating Ajax applications are not technical. The core Ajax technologies are mature, stable, and well understood. Instead, the challenges are for the designers of these applications: to forget what we think we know about the limitations of the Web, and begin to imagine a wider, richer range of possibilities

Should I consider AJAX?
AJAX definitely has the buzz right now, but it might not be the right thing for you. AJAX is limited to the latest browsers, exposes browser compatibility issues, and requires new skill-sets for many. There is a good blog entry by Alex Bosworth on AJAX Mistakes which is a good read before you jump full force into AJAX.
On the other hand you can achieve highly interactive rich web applications that are responsive and appear really fast. While it is debatable as to whether an AJAX based application is really faster, the user feels a sense of immediacy because they are given active feedback while data is exchanged in the background. If you are an early adopter and can handle the browser compatibility issues, and are willing to learn some more skills, then AJAX is for you. It may be prudent to start off AJAX-ifying a small portion or component of your application first. We all love technology, but just remember the purpose of AJAX is to enhance your user's experience and not hinder it.

Does AJAX work with Java?
Absolutely. Java is a great fit for AJAX! You can use Java Enterprise Edition servers to generate AJAX client pages and to serve incoming AJAX requests, manage server side state for AJAX clients, and connect AJAX clients to your enterprise resources. The JavaServer Faces component model is a great fit for defining and using AJAX components.

Won't my server-side framework provide me with AJAX?
You may be benefiting from AJAX already. Many existing Java based frameworks already have some level of AJAX interactions and new frameworks and component libraries are being developed to provide better AJAX support. I won't list all the Java frameworks that use AJAX here, out of fear of missing someone, but you can find a good list at
If you have not chosen a framework yet it is recommended you consider using JavaServer Faces or a JavaServer Faces based framework. JavaServer Faces components can be created and used to abstract many of the details of generating JavaScript, AJAX interactions, and DHTML processing and thus enable simple AJAX used by JSF application developer and as plug-ins in JSF compatible IDE's, such as Sun Java Studio Creator.

Where should I start?
Assuming the framework you are using does not suffice your use cases and you would like to develop your own AJAX components or functionality I suggest you start with the article Asynchronous JavaScript Technology and XML (AJAX) With Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition.
If you would like to see a very basic example that includes source code you can check out the tech tip Using AJAX with Java Technology. For a more complete list of AJAX resources the Blueprints AJAX home page.
Next, I would recommend spending some time investigating AJAX libraries and frameworks. If you choose to write your own AJAX clients-side script you are much better off not re-inventing the wheel.
AJAX in Action by Dave Crane and Eric Pascarello with Darren James is good resource. This book is helpful for the Java developer in that in contains an appendix for learning JavaScript for the Java developer.

Did Adaptive Path invent Ajax? Did Google? Did Adaptive Path help build Google’s Ajax applications?
Neither Adaptive Path nor Google invented Ajax. Google’s recent products are simply the highest-profile examples of Ajax applications. Adaptive Path was not involved in the development of Google’s Ajax applications, but we have been doing Ajax work for some of our other clients.

Is it possible to set session variables from javascript?
It's not possible to set any session variables directly from javascript as it is purely a client side technology. You can use AJAX though to asyncronously...

Cannot parse XML generated by JSP I am generating an XML using JSP, when i run the JSP in IE it shows the XML as per DOM, but when i try to parse it using Javascript , the command xmldoc.documentElement...

This is working code I am using, it might help you. if (!isIE) xmldoc = req.responseXML; else { //IE does not take the responseXML as...

What do I need to know to create my own AJAX functionality?
If you plan not to reuse and existing AJAX component here are some of the things you will need to know.
Plan to learn Dynamic HTML (DHTML), the technology that is the foundation for AJAX. DHTML enables browser-base real time interaction between a user and a web page. DHTML is the combination of JavaScript, the Document Object Model (DOM) and Cascading Style Sheets (CSS).
* JavaScript - JavaScript is a loosely typed object based scripting language supported by all major browsers and essential for AJAX interactions. JavaScript in a page is called when an event in a page occurs such as a page load, a mouse click, or a key press in a form element.
* DOM - An API for accessing and manipulating structured documents. In most cases DOM represent the structure of XML and HTML documents.
* CSS - Allows you to define the presentation of a page such as fonts, colors, sizes, and positioning. CSS allow for a clear separation of the presentation from the content and may be changed programmatically by JavaScript.
Understanding the basic request/response nature of HTTP is also important. Many subtle bugs can result if you ignore the differences between the GET and OIst methods when configuring an XMLHttpRequest and HTTP response codes when processing callbacks.
JavaScript is the client-side glue, in a sense. JavaScript is used to create the XMLHttpRequest Object and trigger the asynchronous call. JavaScript is used to parse the returned content. JavaScript is used to analyze the returned data and process returned messages. JavaScript is used to inject the new content into the HTML using the DOM API and to modify the CSS.

Do I really need to learn JavaScript?
Basically yes if you plan to develop new AJAX functionality for your web application.
On the other hand, JSF components and component libraries can abstract the details of JavaScript, DOM and CSS. These components can generate the necessary artifacts to make AJAX interactions possible. Visual tools such as Java Studio Creator may also use AJAX enabled JSF components to create applications, shielding the tool developer from many of the details of

AJAX. If you plan to develop your own JSF components or wire the events of components together in a tool it is important that you have a basic understanding of JavaScript. There are client-side JavaScript libraries (discussed below) that you can call from your in page JavaScript that abstract browser differences. Object Hierarchy and Inheritance in JavaScript is a great resource for a Java developer to learn about JavaScript objects.

Do Ajax applications always deliver a better experience than traditional web applications?
Not necessarily. Ajax gives interaction designers more flexibility. However, the more power we have, the more caution we must use in exercising it. We must be careful to use Ajax to enhance the user experience of our applications, not degrade it.

What JavaScript libraries and frameworks are available?
There are many libraries/frameworks out there (and many more emerging) that will help abstract such things as all the nasty browser differences. Three good libraries are The Dojo Toolkit, Prototype, and DWR.

* The Dojo Toolkit contains APIs and widgets to support the development of rich web applications. Dojo contains an intelligent packaging system, UI effects, drag and drop APIs, widget APIs, event abstraction, client storage APIs, and AJAX interaction APIs. Dojo solves common usability issues such as support for dealing with the navigation such as the ability to detect the browser back button, the ability to support changes to the URL in the URL bar for bookmarking, and the ability to gracefully degrade when AJAX/JavaScript is not fully support on the client. Dojo is the Swiss Army Knife of JavaScript libraries. It provides the widest range of options in a single library and it does a very good job supporting new and older browsers.
* Prototype focuses on AJAX interactions including a JavaScript AJAX object that contains a few objects to do basic tasks such as make a request, update a portion of a document, insert content into a document, and update a portion of a document periodically. Prototype JavaScript library contains a set of JavaScript objects for representing AJAX requests and contains utility functions for accessing in page components and DOM manipulations. and Rico are built on top of Prototype and provide UI effects, support for drag and drop, and include common JavaScript centric widgets. If you are just looking to support AJAX interactions and a few basic tasks Prototype is great. If you are looking for UI effects Rico and are good options.
* Yahoo UI Library is a utility library and set of widgets using the APIs to support rich clients. The utility library includes support for cross-browser AJAX interactions, animation, DOM scriptging support, drag and drop, and cross browser event support. The Yahoo UI Library is well documnented and contains many examples.
* DWR (Dynamic Web Remoting) is a client-side and server-side framework that focuses on allowing a developer to do RPC calls from client-side JavaScript to plain old Java objects in a Java Enterprise Edition web container. On the server side DWR uses a Servlet to interact with the Java objects and returns object representations of the Java objects or XML documents. DWR will be easy to get up and running and plays well with other Java technologies. If you are looking for a client-side and server-side framework that integrates well use DWR.
* Google Web Toolkit (GWT) is client/server framework provided by Google that allows a developer to write an AJAX application in pure Java. The GWT takes care of the details of generating all the client-side code using a Java-to-JavaScript compiler. One of the key benefits of the GWT Software Developer Kit (SDK) is that it allows you to debug your applications in what is known as GWT hosted mode using an embedded browser (IE on Windows and Mozilla/Gecko on Linux) that is tied to the toolkit. In GWT hosted mode you setup through the code and debug it as it is running on both the client and server. The GWT contains a default set of widgets and widget containers. An application is built by coding a set of widgets and containers together much like would be done in a Swing application. The GWT Software Developer Kit (SDK) is limited to Linux and Windows XP/2000 though the web applications it generates are compatible with the latest generation of the mainstream browsers.

There are many new and emerging libraries for JavaScript and this list only reviews some of the more common libraries. When making a choice choose the library which suites your needs the best. While it might be better to choose one, there is nothing stopping you from using more than one framework. For a more extensive list of client-side frameworks see: Survey of AJAX/JavaScript Libraries.

What is the difference between proxied and proxyless calls?
Proxied calls are made through stub objects that mimic your PHP classes on the JavaScript side. E.g., the helloworld class from the Hello World example.
Proxyless calls are made using utility javascript functions like HTML_AJAX.replace() and HTML_AJAX.append().

Should I use XML or text, JavaScript, or HTML as a return type?
It depends. Clearly the 'X' in AJAX stands for XML, but several AJAX proponents are quick to point out that nothing in AJAX, per se, precludes using other types of payload, such as, JavaScript, HTML, or plain text.

* XML - Web Services and AJAX seem made for one another. You can use client-side API's for downloading and parsing the XML content from RESTful Web Services. (However be mindful with some SOAP based Web Services architectures the payloads can get quite large and complex, and therefore may be inappropriate with AJAX techniqes.)
* Plain Text - In this case server-generated text may be injected into a document or evaluated by client-side logic.
* JavaScript - This is an extension to the plain text case with the exception that a server-side component passes a fragment of JavaScript including JavaScript object declarations. Using the JavaScript eval() function you can then create the objects on the client. JavaScript Object Notation (JSON), which is a JavaScript object based data exchange specification, relies on this technique.
* HTML - Injecting server-generated HTML fragments directly into a document is generally a very effective AJAX technique. However, it can be complicated keeping the server-side component in sync with what is displayed on the client.

Mashup is a popular term for creating a completely new web application by combining the content from disparate Web Services and other online API's. A good example of a mashup is which graphically combines housing want-ads from and maps from

Are there Usability Issues with AJAX?
The nature of updating a page dynamically using data retrieved via AJAX interactions and DHTML may result in drastically changing the appearance and state of a page. A user might choose to use the browser's back or forward buttons, bookmark a page, copy the URL from the URL bar and share it with a friend via an email or chat client, or print a page at any given time. When designing an AJAX based application you need to consider what the expected behavior would be in the case of navigation, bookmarking, printing, and browser support as described below.

* Navigation - What would be the expected behavior of the back, forward, refresh, and bookmark browser buttons in your application design. While you could implement history manipulation manually it may be easer to use a JavaScript frameworks such as Dojo that provides API's history manipulation and navigation control.
* Bookmarking and URL sharing - Many users want to bookmark or cut and paste the URL from the browser bar. Dojo provides client-side for bookmarking and URL manipulation.
* Printing - In some cases printing dynamically rendered pages can be problematic.
Other considerations as a developer when using AJAX are:
* Browser Support - Not all AJAX/DHTML features are supported on all browsers or all versions of a browser. See for a list of browser support and possible workarounds.
* JavaScript disabled - You should also consider what happens if the user disables JavaScript. Additionally, there are several legitimate reasons why JavaScript and CSS support may be unavailable on a user's web browser.
* Latency - Keep in mind latency in your design. A running application will be much more responsive than when it is deployed.
Latency problems: myth or reality?
* Accessibility - Guaranteeing your site is accessible to people with disabilities is not only a noble goal, it is also requited by law in many markets. Some marvelous enabling technology is available to help people use the Web in spite of disabilities including visual, auditory, physical, speech, cognitive, and neurological disabilities. With a little forethought, and comprehension of some well documented best practices, you can assure that your application is compatible with that enabling technology.
Degradability is the term used to describe techniques used by web applications to adapt to the wide range of web browser capabilities. Many AJAX libraries have automatic degradability built in. But if you are coding your own custom AJAX functionality, simply taking some care to follow the best practices promoted by standards bodies like the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), and grass root movements like the Web Standards community and many others, your application can run usefully on browsers that are incapable of AJAX behaviors. Granted, your application may loose some of the "wow factor" on these less capable browsers, but your application will still be usable.
Remember to not design with AJAX just for the sake of coolness. The reason you built your application is so people will use it. And people will not use your application if your application is not compatible with their web browser.

Are there any frameworks available to help speedup development with AJAX?
There are several browser-side frameworks available, each with their own uniqueness...

Is Adaptive Path selling Ajax components or trademarking the name? Where can I download it?
Ajax isn’t something you can download. It’s an approach — a way of thinking about the architecture of web applications using certain technologies. Neither the Ajax name nor the approach are proprietary to Adaptive Path.

Ajax Interview Questions And Answers Set - 2

Ajax Interview Questions And Answers Set - 2

Should I use an HTTP GET or POST for my AJAX calls?
AJAX requests should use an HTTP GET request when retrieving data where the data will not change for a given request URL. An HTTP POST should be used when state is updated on the server. This is in line with HTTP idempotency recommendations and is highly recommended for a consistent web application architecture.

How do I debug JavaScript?
There are not that many tools out there that will support both client-side and server-side debugging. I am certain this will change as AJAX applications proliferate. I currently do my client-side and server-side debugging separately. Below is some information on the client-side debuggers on some of the commonly used browsers.

* Firefox/Mozilla/Netscape - Have a built in debugger Venkman which can be helpful but there is a Firefox add on known as FireBug which provides all the information and AJAX developer would ever need including the ability to inspect the browser DOM, console access to the JavaScript runtime in the browser, and the ability to see the HTTP requests and responses (including those made by an XMLHttpRequest). I tend to develop my applications initially on Firefox using Firebug then venture out to the other browsers.
* Safari - Has a debugger which needs to be enabled. See the Safari FAQ for details.
* Internet Explorer - There is MSDN Documentation on debugging JavaScript. A developer toolbar for Internet Explorer may also be helpful.

While debuggers help a common technique knowing as "Alert Debugging" may be used. In this case you place "alert()" function calls inline much like you would a System.out.println. While a little primitive it works for most basic cases. Some frameworks such as Dojo provide APIs for tracking debug statements.

How do I provide internationalized AJAX interactions?
Just because you are using XML does not mean you can properly send and receive localized content using AJAX requests. To provide internationalized AJAX components you need to do the following:

* Set the charset of the page to an encoding that is supported by your target languages. I tend to use UTF-8 because it covers the most languages. The following meta declaration in a HTML/JSP page will set the content type:

* In the page JavaScript make sure to encode any parameters sent to the server. JavaScript provides the escape() function which returns Unicode escape strings in which localized text will appear in hexadecimal format. For more details on JavaScript encoding see Comparing escape(), encodeURI(), and encodeURIComponent().
* On the server-side component set the character encoding using the HttpServletRequest.setCharacterEncoding() method. Before you access the localized parameter using the HttpServletRequest.getParameter() call. In the case of UTF this would be request.setCharactherEncoding("UTF-8");.
A server-side component returning AJAX responses needs to set the encoding of the response to the same encoding used in the page.
response.getWriter().write(" invalid ");

For more information on using AJAX with Java Enterprise Edition technologies see AJAX and Internationalization and for developing multi-lingual applications see Developing Multilingual Web Applications Using JavaServer Pages Technology.

Some of the Google examples you cite don’t use XML at all. Do I have to use XML and/or XSLT in an Ajax application?
No. XML is the most fully-developed means of getting data in and out of an Ajax client, but there’s no reason you couldn’t accomplish the same effects using a technology like JavaScript Object Notation or any similar means of structuring data for interchange.

Are Ajax applications easier to develop than traditional web applications?
Not necessarily. Ajax applications inevitably involve running complex JavaScript code on the client. Making that complex code efficient and bug-free is not a task to be taken lightly, and better development tools and frameworks will be needed to help us meet that challenge.

When do I use a synchronous versus a asynchronous request?
Good question. They don't call it AJAX for nothing! A synchronous request would block in page event processing and I don't see many use cases where a synchronous request is preferable.

How do I handle concurrent AJAX requests?
With JavaScript you can have more than one AJAX request processing at a single time. In order to insure the proper post processing of code it is recommended that you use JavaScript Closures. The example below shows an XMLHttpRequest object abstracted by a JavaScript object called AJAXInteraction. As arguments you pass in the URL to call and the function to call when the processing is done.
function AJAXInteraction(url, callback) {

var req = init();
req.onreadystatechange = processRequest;

function init() {
if (window.XMLHttpRequest) {
return new XMLHttpRequest();
} else if (window.ActiveXObject) {
return new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLHTTP");

function processRequest () {
if (req.readyState == 4) {
if (req.status == 200) {
if (callback) callback(req.responseXML);

this.doGet = function() {"GET", url, true);

this.doPost = function(body) {"POST", url, true);
req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type", "

function makeRequest() {
var ai = new AJAXInteraction("processme",
function() { alert("Doing Post Process");});

The function makeRequest() in the example above creates an AJAXInteraction with a URL to of "processme" and an inline function that will show an alert dialog with the message "Doing Post Process". When ai.doGet() is called the AJAX interaction is initiated and when server-side component mapped to the URL "processme" returns a document which is passed to the callback function that was specified when the AJAXInteraction was created.
Using this closures insures that the proper callback function associated with a specific AJAX interaction is called. Caution should still be taken when creating multiple closure objects in that make XmlHttpRequests as to there is a limited number of sockets that are used to make requests at any given time. Because there are limited number of requests that can be made concurrently. Internet Explorer for example only allows for two concurrent AJAX requests at any given time. Other browsers may allow more but it is generally between three and five requests. You may choose to use pool of AJAXInteraction objects.
One thing to note when making multiple AJAX calls from the client is that the calls are not guaranteed to return in any given order. Having closures within the callback of a closure object can be used to ensure dependencies are processed correctly.
There is a discussion titled Ajaxian Fire and Forget Pattern that is helpful.

What do I do on the server to interact with an AJAX client?
The "Content-Type" header needs to be set to"text/xml". In servlets this may be done using the HttpServletResponse.setContentType()should be set to "text/xml" when the return type is XML. Many XMLHttpRequest implementations will result in an error if the "Content-Type" header is set The code below shows how to set the "Content-Type".


You may also want to set whether or not to set the caches header for cases such as autocomplete where you may want to notify proxy servers/and browsers not to cache the results.

response.setHeader("Cache-Control", "no-cache");

Note to the developer: Internet Explorer will automatically use a cached result of any AJAX response from a HTTP GET if this header is not set which can make things difficult for a developer. During development mode you may want set this header. Where do I store state with an AJAX client

As with other browser based web applications you have a few options which include:
* On the client in cookies - The size is limited (generally around 4KB X 20 cookies per domain so a total of 80KB) and the content may not be secure unless encrypted which is difficult but not impossible using JavaScript.
* On the client in the page - This can be done securely but can be problematic and difficult to work with. See my blog entry on Storing State on the Client for more details on this topic.
* On the client file system - This can be done if the client grants access to the browser to write to the local file system. Depending on your uses cases this may be necessary but caution is advised.
* On the Server - This is closer to the traditional model where the client view is of the state on the server. Keeping the data in sync can be a bit problematic and thus we have a solution Refreshing Data on this. As more information processing and control moves to the client where state is stored will need to be re-evaluated.

Whats with the -alpha in the install instructions?
HTML_AJAX hasn't had a stable release yet and the pear installer doesn't install non stable packages by default unless you specify a version.

How do I submit a form or a part of a form without a page refresh?
When creating a form make sure that the "form" element "onSubmit" attribute is set to a JavaScript function that returns false.

You can also submit data by associating a function with a form button in a similar way.

Note that the form "onSubmit" attribute is still set. If the user hits the enter key in the text field the form will be submitted so you still need to handle that case.
When updating the page it is recommend you wait to make sure that the AJAX update of the form data was successful before updating the data in the page. Otherwise, the data may not properly update and the user may not know. I like to provide an informative message when doing a partial update and upon a successful AJAX interaction I will then update the page.

Ajax Interview Questions And Answers Set - 3

Ajax Interview Questions And Answers Set - 3

How do I test my AJAX code?
There is a port of JUnit for client-side JavaScript called JsUnit

What exactly is the W3C DOM?
The W3C Document Object Model (DOM) is defined by the W3C as the following: The Document Object Model is a platform- and language-neutral interface...

When will HTML_AJAX have a stable release?
Once all the major features are complete and the API has been tested, the roadmap gives an idea of whats left to be done.

What parts of the HTML_AJAX API are stable?
We don't have a list right now, but most of the API is stable as of 0.3.0. There should be no major changes at this point, though there will be lots of new additions.

What Browsers does HTML_AJAX work with?
As of 0.3.0, all the examples that ship with HTML_AJAX have been verified to work with
* Firefox 1.0+
* Internet Explorer 5.5+ (5.0 should work but it hasn't been tested)
Most things work with
* Safari 2+
* Opera 8.5+

Is the server or the client in control?
It depends. With AJAX the answer is more in between. Control can be more centralized in a server-side component or as a mix of client-side and server-side controllers.

* Centralized server-side controller - When having a more centralized controller the key is to make sure the data in client-side page is in sync with that of the server. Some applications may keep all the state on the server and push all updates to client DOM via a simple JavaScript controller.
* Client and server-side controllers - This architecture would use JavaScript to do all presentation related control, event processing, page manipulation, and rendering of model data on the client. The server-side would be responsible for things such as business logic and pushing updated model data to the client. In this case the server would not have intimate knowledge of the presentation short of the initial page that would be sent to the client page request.

There are some use cases where an entire AJAX application can be written in a single page. Keep in mind if you choose this type of architecture that navigation and bookmarking should be considered.
Both methods are viable depending on what you are trying to accomplish. I tend to prefer spreading the control across the client and server.

Is Ajax just another name for XMLHttpRequest?
No. XMLHttpRequest is only part of the Ajax equation. XMLHttpRequest is the technical component that makes the asynchronous server communication possible; Ajax is our name for the overall approach described in the article, which relies not only on XMLHttpRequest, but on CSS, DOM, and other technologies.

How do I abort the current XMLHttpRequest?
Just call the abort() method on the request.

What is the minimum version of PHP that needs to be running in order to use HTML_AJAX?
The oldest PHP version i've fully tested HTML_AJAX is 4.3.11, but it should run on 4.2.0 without any problems. (Testing reports from PHP versions older then 4.3.11 would be appreciated.)

Why does HTML_AJAX hang on some server installs
If you run into an HTML_AJAX problem only on some servers, chances are your running into a problem with output compression. If the output compression is handled in the PHP config we detect that and do the right thing, but if its done from an apache extension we have no way of knowing its going to compress the body. Some times setting HTML_AJAX::sendContentLength to false fixes the problem, but in other cases you'll need to disabled the extension for the AJAX pages.
I've also seen problems caused by debugging extensions like XDebug, disabling the extension on the server page usually fixes that. Questions dealing with Using HTML_AJAX, and general JavaScript development

How do I get the XMLHttpRequest object?
Depending upon the browser... if (window.ActiveXObject) { // Internet Explorer http_request = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLHTTP"); } else if...

Are there any security issues with AJAX?
JavaScript is in plain view to the user with by selecting view source of the page. JavaScript can not access the local filesystem without the user's permission. An AJAX interaction can only be made with the servers-side component from which the page was loaded. A proxy pattern could be used for AJAX interactions with external services.
You need to be careful not to expose your application model in such as way that your server-side components are at risk if a nefarious user to reverse engineer your application. As with any other web application, consider using HTTPS to secure the connection when confidential information is being exchanged.

What about applets and plugins ?
Don't be too quick to dump your plugin or applet based portions of your application. While AJAX and DHTML can do drag and drop and other advanced user interfaces there still limitations especially when it comes to browser support. Plugins and applets have been around for a while and have been able to make AJAX like requests for years. Applets provide a great set of UI components and APIs that provide developers literally anything.
Many people disregard applets or plugins because there is a startup time to initialize the plugin and there is no guarantee that the needed version of a plugin of JVM is installed. Plugins and applets may not be as capable of manipulating the page DOM. If you are in a uniform environment or can depend on a specific JVM or plugin version being available (such as in a corporate environment) a plugin or applet solution is great.
One thing to consider is a mix of AJAX and applets or plugins. Flickr uses a combination of AJAX interactions/DHTML for labeling pictures and user interaction and a plugin for manipulating photos and photo sets to provide a great user experience. If you design your server-side components well they can talk to both types of clients.

Why did you feel the need to give this a name?
I needed something shorter than “Asynchronous JavaScript+CSS+DOM+XMLHttpRequest” to use when discussing this approach with clients.

Is AJAX code cross browser compatible?
Not totally. Most browsers offer a native XMLHttpRequest JavaScript object, while another one (Internet Explorer) require you to get it as an ActiveX object....

Techniques for asynchronous server communication have been around for years. What makes Ajax a “new” approach?
What’s new is the prominent use of these techniques in real-world applications to change the fundamental interaction model of the Web. Ajax is taking hold now because these technologies and the industry’s understanding of how to deploy them most effectively have taken time to develop.

Is Ajax a technology platform or is it an architectural style?
It’s both. Ajax is a set of technologies being used together in a particular way.

How do I handle the back and forward buttons?
While you could go out and create a custom solution that tracks the current state on your application I recommend you leave this to the experts. Dojo addresses the navigation in a browser neutral way as can be seen in the JavaScript example below.
function updateOnServer(oldId, oldValue,
itemId, itemValue) {
var bindArgs = {
url: "faces/ajax-dlabel-update",
method: "post",
content: {"component-id": itemId, "component-value":
mimetype: "text/xml",
load: function(type, data) {
backButton: function() {
alert("old itemid was " + oldId);
forwardButton: function(){
alert("forward we must go!");

The example above will update a value on the server using with a function as a property that is responsible for dealing with the browser back button event. As a developer you are capable of restoring the value to the oldValue or taking any other action that you see fit. The underlying details of how the how the browser button event are detected are hidden from the developer by Dojo.
AJAX: How to Handle Bookmarks and Back Buttons details this problem and provides a JavaScript library Really Simple History framework (RSH) that focuses just on the back and forward issue.

How does HTML_AJAX compare with the XAJAX project at Sourceforge?
XAJAX uses XML as a transport for data between the webpage and server, and you don't write your own javascript data handlers to manipulate the data received from the server. Instead you use a php class and built in javascript methods, a combination that works very similiar to the HTML_AJAX_Action class and haSerializer combo. XAJAX is designed for simplicity and ease of use.
HTML_AJAX allows for multiple transmission types for your ajax data - such as urlencoding, json, phpserialized, plain text, with others planned, and has a system you can use to write your own serializers to meet your specific needs. HTML_AJAX has a class to help generate javascript (HTML_AJAX_Helper) similiar to ruby on rail's javascript helper (although it isn't complete), and an action system similiar to XAJAX's "action pump" that allows you to avoid writing javascript data handlers if you desire.
But it also has the ability to write your own data handling routines, automatically register classes and methods using a server "proxy" script, do different types of callbacks including grabbing remote urls, choose between sync and async requests, has iframe xmlhttprequest emulation fallback capabilities for users with old browsers or disabled activeX, and is in active development with more features planned (see the Road Map for details)
HTML_AJAX has additional features such as client pooling and priority queues for more advanced users, and even a javascript utility class. Although you can use HTML_AJAX the same way you use XAJAX, the additional features make it more robust, extensible and flexible. And it is a pear package, you can use the pear installer to both install and keep it up to date.
If you're asking which is "better" - as with most php scripts it's a matter of taste and need. Do you need a quick, simple ajax solution? Or do you want something that's flexible, extensible, and looking to incorporate even more great features? It depends on the project, you as a writer, and your future plans.

What browsers support AJAX?
Internet Explorer 5.0 and up, Opera 7.6 and up, Netscape 7.1 and up, Firefox 1.0 and up, Safari 1.2 and up, among others.

Ajax Interview Questions And Answers Set - 4

Ajax Interview Questions And Answers Set - 4

How do I send an image using AJAX?
While it may appear that images are being sent when using AJAX with an application like Google Maps what is really happening is that the URLs of images are being send as the response of an AJAX request and those URLs are being set using DHTML.
In this example an XML document is returned from an AJAX interaction and the category bar is populated.

Fun to read

Must have gadgets

Notice that the image-url element contains the location of the URL for the image representing a category. The callback method of an AJAX interaction will parse the response XML document and call the addCategory function for each category included in the response XML document. The addCategory function looks up a table row element "categoryTable" in body of the page and adds a row to the element which contains the image.


function addCategory(id, name, imageSrc) {

var categoryTable = document.getElementById("categoryTable");
var row = document.createElement("tr");
var catCell = document.createElement("td");
var img = document.createElement("img");
img.src = ("images\\" + imageSrc);
var link = document.createElement("a");
link.className ="category";
link.setAttribute("onclick", "catalog?command=category&catid=" + id);


Body Here

Note that the source of the image is set to the image source. The image is loaded by a subsequent HTTP request for the image at the URL "images/books_icon.gif" or "images/electronic_icon.gif" that occurs when the img element is added to the categoryTable.

Will HTML_AJAX integrate with other Javascript AJAX libraries such as scriptaculous ? How would this integration look like?
HTML_AJAX doesn't have specific plans to integrate with other JavaScript libraries. Part of this is because external dependencies make for a more complicated installation process. It might make sense to offer some optional dependencies on a library like scriptaculous automatically using its visual effects for the loading box or something, but there isn't a lot to gain from making default visuals like that flashier since they are designed to be easily replaceable.

Most integration would take place in higher level components. Its unclear whether higher level components like that should be part of HTML_AJAX delivered through PEAR or if they should just be supported by HTML_AJAX and made available from or some other site. If your interested in building widgets or components based on HTML_AJAX please let me know.

HTML_AJAX does however offer the ability to use its library loading mechanism with any JavaScript library. I use scriptaculous in conjunction with HTML_AJAX and I load both libraries through the server.

To do this you just need to register the library with your server and load add its flag to your include line.

array('prototype.js','scriptaculous.js','builder.js','effects.js','dragdrop.js','controls.js','slider.js'), '/pathto/scriptaculous/');?>

When should I use an Java applet instead of AJAX?
Applets provide a rich experience on the client side and there are many things they can do that an AJAX application cannot do, such as custom data streaming, graphic manipulation, threading, and advanced GUIs. While DHTML with the use of AJAX has been able to push the boundaries on what you can do on the client, there are some things that it just cannot do. The reason AJAX is so popular is that it only requires functionality built into the browser (namely DHTML and AJAX capabilities). The user does not need to download and/or configure plugins. It is easy to incrementally update functionality and know that that functionality will readily available, and there are not any complicated deployment issues. That said, AJAX-based functionality does need to take browser differences into consideration. This is why we recommend using a JavaScript library such as Dojo which abstracts browser differences. So the "bottom line" is: If you are creating advanced UIs where you need more advanced features on the client where you want UI accuracy down to the pixel, to do complex computations on the client, use specialized networking techniques, and where you know that the applet plugin is available for your target audience, applets are the way to go. AJAX/DHTML works well for applications where you know the users are using the latest generation of browsers, where DHTML/AJAX "good enough" for you, and where your developers have JavaScript/DHTML/AJAX skills. Many amazing things can be done with AJAX/DHTML but there are limitations. AJAX and applets can be used together in the same UIs with AJAX providing the basic structure and applets providing more advanced functionality. The Java can communicate to JavaScript using the Live-Connect APIs. The question should not be should framed as do I use AJAX or applets, but rather which technology makes the best sense for what you are doing. AJAX and applets do not have to be mutually exclusive.

What kinds of applications is Ajax best suited for?
We don’t know yet. Because this is a relatively new approach, our understanding of where Ajax can best be applied is still in its infancy. Sometimes the traditional web application model is the most appropriate solution to a problem.

Does this mean Adaptive Path is anti-Flash?
Not at all. Macromedia is an Adaptive Path client, and we’ve long been supporters of Flash technology. As Ajax matures, we expect that sometimes Ajax will be the better solution to a particular problem, and sometimes Flash will be the better solution. We’re also interested in exploring ways the technologies can be mixed (as in the case of Flickr, which uses both).

Where can I find examples of AJAX?
While components of AJAX have been around for some time (for instance, 1999 for XMLHttpRequest), it really didn't become that popular until Google took...

What is the XMLHttpRequest object?
It offers a non-blocking way for JavaScript to communicate back to the web server to update only part of the web page.

Does Ajax have significant accessibility or browser compatibility limitations? Do Ajax applications break the back button? Is Ajax compatible with REST? Are there security considerations with Ajax development? Can Ajax applications be made to work for users who have JavaScript turned off?
The answer to all of these questions is “maybe”. Many developers are already working on ways to address these concerns. We think there’s more work to be done to determine all the limitations of Ajax, and we expect the Ajax development community to uncover more issues like these along the way.

How do I access data from other domains to create a mashup with Java?
From your JavaScript clients you can access data in other domains if the return data is provide in JSON format. In essence you can create a JavaScript client that runs operates using data from a different server. This technique is know as JSON with Padding or JSONP. There are questions as to whether this method is secure as you are retrieving data from outside your domain and allowing it to be excuted in the context of your domain. Not all data from third parties is accessible as JSON and in some cases you may want an extra level of protection. With Java you can provide a proxy to third party services using a web component such as a servlet. This proxy can manage the communication with a third party service and provide the data to your clients in a format of your choosing. You can also cache data at your proxy and reduce trips to service. For more on using a Java proxy to create mashups see The XmlHttpProxy Client for Java.

Does Java have support for Comet style server-side push?
Current AJAX applications use polling to communicate changes data between the server and client. Some applications, such as chat applications, stock tickers, or score boards require more immediate notifications of updates to the client. Comet is an event based low latency server side push for AJAX applications. Comet communication keeps one of the two connections available to the browser open to continously communicate events from the server to the client. A Java based solution for Comet is being developed for Glassfish on top of the Grizzly HTTP connector. See Enabling Grizzly by Jean-Francois Arcand for more details.

How do I create a thread to do AJAX polling?
JavaScript does not have threads. JavaScript functions are called when an event happens in a page such as the page is loaded, a mouse click, or a form element gains focus. You can create a timer using the setTimeout which takes a function name and time in milliseconds as arguments. You can then loop by calling the same function as can be seen in the JavaScript example below.

function checkForMessage() {
// start AJAX interaction with processCallback as the callback function

// callback for the request
function processCallback() {

// do post processing
setTimeout("checkForMessage()", 10000);

Notice that the checkForMessage will continue to loop indefinitely. You may want to vary the increment the interval based on activity in the page or your use cases. You may also choose to have logic that would break out of the loop based on some AJAX response processing condition.

Is the XMLHttpRequest object part of a W3C standard?
No. Or not yet. It is part of the DOM Level 3 Load and Save Specification proposal.

PHP Interview Questions And Answers Set - 1

PHP Interview Questions And Answers Set - 1

What's PHP ?
The PHP Hypertext Preprocessor is a programming language that allows web developers to create dynamic content that interacts with databases. PHP is basically used for developing web based software applications.

What Is a Session?
A session is a logical object created by the PHP engine to allow you to preserve data across subsequent HTTP requests.

There is only one session object available to your PHP scripts at any time. Data saved to the session by a script can be retrieved by the same script or another script when requested from the same visitor.

Sessions are commonly used to store temporary data to allow multiple PHP pages to offer a complete functional transaction for the same visitor.

What is meant by PEAR in php?
PEAR is the next revolution in PHP. This repository is bringing higher level programming to PHP. PEAR is a framework and distribution system for reusable PHP components. It eases installation by bringing an automated wizard, and packing the strength and experience of PHP users into a nicely organised OOP library. PEAR also provides a command-line interface that can be used to automatically install "packages"

PEAR is short for "PHP Extension and Application Repository" and is pronounced just like the fruit. The purpose of PEAR is to provide:
A structured library of open-sourced code for PHP users
A system for code distribution and package maintenance
A standard style for code written in PHP
The PHP Foundation Classes (PFC),
The PHP Extension Community Library (PECL),
A web site, mailing lists and download mirrors to support the PHP/PEAR community
PEAR is a community-driven project with the PEAR Group as the governing body. The project has been founded by Stig S. Bakken in 1999 and quite a lot of people have joined the project since then.

How can we know the number of days between two given dates using PHP?
Simple arithmetic:

$date1 = date('Y-m-d');
$date2 = '2006-07-01';
$days = (strtotime() - strtotime()) / (60 * 60 * 24);
echo "Number of days since '2006-07-01': $days";

What is the difference between $message and $$message?
Anwser 1:
$message is a simple variable whereas $$message is a reference variable. Example:
$user = 'bob'

is equivalent to

$holder = 'user';
$$holder = 'bob';

Anwser 2:
They are both variables. But $message is a variable with a fixed name. $$message is a variable who's name is stored in $message. For example, if $message contains "var", $$message is the same as $var.

What Is a Persistent Cookie?
A persistent cookie is a cookie which is stored in a cookie file permanently on the browser's computer. By default, cookies are created as temporary cookies which stored only in the browser's memory. When the browser is closed, temporary cookies will be erased. You should decide when to use temporary cookies and when to use persistent cookies based on their differences:
*Temporary cookies can not be used for tracking long-term information.
*Persistent cookies can be used for tracking long-term information.
*Temporary cookies are safer because no programs other than the browser can access them.
*Persistent cookies are less secure because users can open cookie files see the cookie values.

What does a special set of tags do in PHP?
The output is displayed directly to the browser.

How do you define a constant?
Via define() directive, like define ("MYCONSTANT", 100);

What are the differences between require and include, include_once?
Anwser 1:
require_once() and include_once() are both the functions to include and evaluate the specified file only once. If the specified file is included previous to the present call occurrence, it will not be done again.

But require() and include() will do it as many times they are asked to do.

Anwser 2:
The include_once() statement includes and evaluates the specified file during the execution of the script. This is a behavior similar to the include() statement, with the only difference being that if the code from a file has already been included, it will not be included again. The major difference between include() and require() is that in failure include() produces a warning message whereas require() produces a fatal errors.

Anwser 3:
All three are used to an include file into the current page.
If the file is not present, require(), calls a fatal error, while in include() does not.
The include_once() statement includes and evaluates the specified file during the execution of the script. This is a behavior similar to the include() statement, with the only difference being that if the code from a file has already been included, it will not be included again. It des not call a fatal error if file not exists. require_once() does the same as include_once(), but it calls a fatal error if file not exists.

Anwser 4:
File will not be included more than once. If we want to include a file once only and further calling of the file will be ignored then we have to use the PHP function include_once(). This will prevent problems with function redefinitions, variable value reassignments, etc.

What is the difference between mysql_fetch_object and mysql_fetch_array?
MySQL fetch object will collect first single matching record where mysql_fetch_array will collect all matching records from the table in an array

How can I execute a PHP script using command line?
Just run the PHP CLI (Command Line Interface) program and provide the PHP script file name as the command line argument. For example, "php myScript.php", assuming "php" is the command to invoke the CLI program.
Be aware that if your PHP script was written for the Web CGI interface, it may not execute properly in command line environment.

I am trying to assign a variable the value of 0123, but it keeps coming up with a different number, what’s the problem?
PHP Interpreter treats numbers beginning with 0 as octal. Look at the similar PHP interview questions for more numeric problems.

Would I use print "$a dollars" or "{$a} dollars" to print out the amount of dollars in this example?
In this example it wouldn’t matter, since the variable is all by itself, but if you were to print something like "{$a},000,000 mln dollars", then you definitely need to use the braces.

What are the different tables present in MySQL? Which type of table is generated when we are creating a table in the following syntax: create table employee(eno int(2),ename varchar(10))?
Total 5 types of tables we can create
2. Heap
3. Merge
MyISAM is the default storage engine as of MySQL 3.23. When you fire the above create query MySQL will create a MyISAM table.

PHP Interview Questions And Answers Set - 2

PHP Interview Questions And Answers Set - 2

How To Create a Table?
If you want to create a table, you can run the CREATE TABLE statement as shown in the following sample script:

include "mysql_connection.php";

$sql = "CREATE TABLE Tech_links ("
. ", url VARCHAR(80) NOT NULL"
. ", notes VARCHAR(1024)"
. ", counts INTEGER"
. ", time TIMESTAMP DEFAULT sysdate()"
. ")";
if (mysql_query($sql, $con)) {
print("Table Tech_links created.\n");
} else {
print("Table creation failed.\n");


Remember that mysql_query() returns TRUE/FALSE on CREATE statements. If you run this script, you will get something like this:
Table Tech_links created.

How can we encrypt the username and password using PHP?
You can encrypt a password with the following Mysql>SET PASSWORD=PASSWORD("Password");

You can use the MySQL PASSWORD() function to encrypt username and password. For example,
INSERT into user (password, ...) VALUES (PASSWORD($password”)), ...);

How do you pass a variable by value?
Just like in C++, put an ampersand in front of it, like $a = &$b

What is the functionality of the functions STRSTR() and STRISTR()?
string strstr ( string haystack, string needle ) returns part of haystack string from the first occurrence of needle to the end of haystack. This function is case-sensitive.

stristr() is idential to strstr() except that it is case insensitive.

When are you supposed to use endif to end the conditional statement?
When the original if was followed by : and then the code block without braces.

How can we send mail using JavaScript?
No. There is no way to send emails directly using JavaScript.

But you can use JavaScript to execute a client side email program send the email using the "mailto" code. Here is an example:

function myfunction(form)
return true;

What is the functionality of the function strstr and stristr?
strstr() returns part of a given string from the first occurrence of a given substring to the end of the string. For example: strstr("","@") will return "".
stristr() is idential to strstr() except that it is case insensitive.

What is the difference between ereg_replace() and eregi_replace()?
eregi_replace() function is identical to ereg_replace() except that it ignores case distinction when matching alphabetic characters.

How do I find out the number of parameters passed into function9. ?
func_num_args() function returns the number of parameters passed in.

What is the purpose of the following files having extensions: frm, myd, and myi? What these files contain?
In MySQL, the default table type is MyISAM.
Each MyISAM table is stored on disk in three files. The files have names that begin with the table name and have an extension to indicate the file type.

The '.frm' file stores the table definition.
The data file has a '.MYD' (MYData) extension.
The index file has a '.MYI' (MYIndex) extension,

If the variable $a is equal to 5 and variable $b is equal to character a, what’s the value of $$b?
100, it’s a reference to existing variable.

How To Protect Special Characters in Query String?
If you want to include special characters like spaces in the query string, you need to protect them by applying the urlencode() translation function. The script below shows how to use urlencode():


Please click the links below"
." to submit comments about

$comment = 'I want to say: "It\'s a good site! :->"';
$comment = urlencode($comment);

."It's an excellent site!

$comment = 'This visitor said: "It\'s an average site! :-("';
$comment = urlencode($comment);

."It's an average site.


Are objects passed by value or by reference?
Everything is passed by value.

What are the differences between DROP a table and TRUNCATE a table?
DROP TABLE table_name - This will delete the table and its data.

TRUNCATE TABLE table_name - This will delete the data of the table, but not the table definition.

How do you call a constructor for a parent class?

Here are three basic types of runtime errors in PHP:

1. Notices: These are trivial, non-critical errors that PHP encounters while executing a script - for example, accessing a variable that has not yet been defined. By default, such errors are not displayed to the user at all - although you can change this default behavior.

2. Warnings: These are more serious errors - for example, attempting to include() a file which does not exist. By default, these errors are displayed to the user, but they do not result in script termination.

3. Fatal errors: These are critical errors - for example, instantiating an object of a non-existent class, or calling a non-existent function. These errors cause the immediate termination of the script, and PHP's default behavior is to display them to the user when they take place.

Internally, these variations are represented by twelve different error types

What’s the special meaning of __sleep and __wakeup?
__sleep returns the array of all the variables than need to be saved, while __wakeup retrieves them.

How can we submit a form without a submit button?
If you don't want to use the Submit button to submit a form, you can use normal hyper links to submit a form. But you need to use some JavaScript code in the URL of the link. For example:

Submit Me

PHP Interview Questions And Answers Set - 3

PHP Interview Questions And Answers Set - 3

Why doesn’t the following code print the newline properly?
Because inside the single quotes the \n character is not interpreted as newline, just as a sequence of two characters - \ and n.

Would you initialize your strings with single quotes or double quotes?
Since the data inside the single-quoted string is not parsed for variable substitution, it’s always a better idea speed-wise to initialize a string with single quotes, unless you specifically need variable substitution.

How can we extract string ' ' from a string using regular expression of php?
We can use the preg_match() function with "/.*@(.*)$/" as
the regular expression pattern. For example:
echo $data[1];

What are the differences between GET and POST methods in form submitting, give the case where we can use GET and we can use POST methods?
Anwser 1:

When we submit a form, which has the GET method it displays pair of name/value used in the form at the address bar of the browser preceded by url. Post method doesn't display these values.

Anwser 2:

When you want to send short or small data, not containing ASCII characters, then you can use GET” Method. But for long data sending, say more then 100 character you can use POST method.

Once most important difference is when you are sending the form with GET method. You can see the output which you are sending in the address bar. Whereas if you send the form with POST” method then user can not see that information.

Anwser 3:

What are "GET" and "POST"?

GET and POST are methods used to send data to the server: With the GET method, the browser appends the data onto the URL. With the Post method, the data is sent as "standard input."

Major Difference

In simple words, in POST method data is sent by standard input (nothing shown in URL when posting while in GET method data is sent through query string.

Ex: Assume we are logging in with username and password.

GET: we are submitting a form to login.php, when we do submit or similar action, values are sent through visible query string (notice ./login.php?username=...&password=... as URL when executing the script login.php) and is retrieved by login.php by $_GET['username'] and $_GET['password'].

POST: we are submitting a form to login.php, when we do submit or similar action, values are sent through invisible standard input (notice ./login.php) and is retrieved by login.php by $_POST['username'] and $_POST['password'].

POST is assumed more secure and we can send lot more data than that of GET method is limited (they say Internet Explorer can take care of maximum 2083 character as a query string).

Anwser 4:

In the get method the data made available to the action page ( where data is received ) by the URL so data can be seen in the address bar. Not advisable if you are sending login info like password etc. In the post method the data will be available as data blocks and not as query string in case of get method.

Anwser 5:

When we submit a form, which has the GET method it pass value in the form of query string (set of name/value pair) and display along with URL. With GET we can a small data submit from the form (a set of 255 character) whereas Post method doesn't display value with URL. It passes value in the form of Object and we can submit large data from the form.

Anwser 6:

On the server side, the main difference between GET and POST is where the submitted is stored. The $_GET array stores data submitted by the GET method. The $_POST array stores data submitted by the POST method.
On the browser side, the difference is that data submitted by the GET method will be displayed in the browser’s address field. Data submitted by the POST method will not be displayed anywhere on the browser.
GET method is mostly used for submitting a small amount and less sensitive data. POST method is mostly used for submitting a large amount or sensitive data.

What is the difference between the functions unlink and unset?
unlink() is a function for file system handling. It will simply delete the file in context.

unset() is a function for variable management. It will make a variable undefined.

How come the code works, but doesn’t for two-dimensional array of mine?
Any time you have an array with more than one dimension, complex parsing syntax is required. print "Contents: {$arr[1][2]}" would’ve worked.

How can we register the variables into a session?

$_SESSION['var'] = 'value';

What is the difference between characters \023 and \x23?
The first one is octal 23, the second is hex 23.

With a heredoc syntax, do I get variable substitution inside the heredoc contents?

How can we submit form without a submit button?
We can use a simple JavaScript code linked to an event trigger of any form field. In the JavaScript code, we can call the document.form.submit() function to submit the form. For example:

How can we create a database using PHP and mysql?
We can create MySQL database with the use of mysql_create_db($databaseName) to create a database.

How many ways we can retrieve the date in result set of mysql using php?
As individual objects so single record or as a set or arrays.

Can we use include ("abc.php") two times in a php page "makeit.php"?

For printing out strings, there are echo, print and printf. Explain the differences.
echo is the most primitive of them, and just outputs the contents following the construct to the screen. print is also a construct (so parentheses are optional when calling it), but it returns TRUE on successful output and FALSE if it was unable to print out the string. However, you can pass multiple parameters to echo, like:

and it will output the string "Welcome to techpreparations!" print does not take multiple parameters. It is also generally argued that echo is faster, but usually the speed advantage is negligible, and might not be there for future versions of PHP. printf is a function, not a construct, and allows such advantages as formatted output, but it’s the slowest way to print out data out of echo, print and printf.

I am writing an application in PHP that outputs a printable version of driving directions. It contains some long sentences, and I am a neat freak, and would like to make sure that no line exceeds 50 characters. How do I accomplish that with PHP?
On large strings that need to be formatted according to some length specifications, use wordwrap() or chunk_split().

What’s the output of the ucwords function in this example?
print $formatted;
ucwords() makes every first letter of every word capital, but it does not lower-case anything else. To avoid this, and get a properly formatted string, it’s worth using strtolower() first.

What’s the difference between htmlentities() and htmlspecialchars()?
htmlspecialchars only takes care of <, >, single quote ‘, double quote " and ampersand. htmlentities translates all occurrences of character sequences that have different meaning in HTML.

How can we extract string "" from a string "" using regular expression of PHP?
$text = "";
preg_match('|.*@([^?]*)|', $text, $output);
echo $output[1];

Note that the second index of $output, $output[1], gives the match, not the first one, $output[0].

PHP Interview Questions And Answers Set - 4

PHP Interview Questions And Answers Set - 4

So if md5() generates the most secure hash, why would you ever use the less secure crc32() and sha1()?
Crypto usage in PHP is simple, but that doesn’t mean it’s free. First off, depending on the data that you’re encrypting, you might have reasons to store a 32-bit value in the database instead of the 160-bit value to save on space. Second, the more secure the crypto is, the longer is the computation time to deliver the hash value. A high volume site might be significantly slowed down, if frequent md5() generation is required.

How can we destroy the session, how can we unset the variable of a session?
session_unregister() - Unregister a global variable from the current session
session_unset() - Free all session variables

What are the different functions in sorting an array?
Sorting functions in PHP:

How can we know the count/number of elements of an array?
2 ways:
a) sizeof($array) - This function is an alias of count()
b) count($urarray) - This function returns the number of elements in an array.
Interestingly if you just pass a simple var instead of an array, count() will return 1.

How many ways we can pass the variable through the navigation between the pages?
At least 3 ways:

1. Put the variable into session in the first page, and get it back from session in the next page.
2. Put the variable into cookie in the first page, and get it back from the cookie in the next page.
3. Put the variable into a hidden form field, and get it back from the form in the next page.

What is the maximum length of a table name, a database name, or a field name in MySQL?
Database name: 64 characters
Table name: 64 characters
Column name: 64 characters

How many values can the SET function of MySQL take?
MySQL SET function can take zero or more values, but at the maximum it can take 64 values.

What are the other commands to know the structure of a table using MySQL commands except EXPLAIN command?
DESCRIBE table_name;

How can we find the number of rows in a table using MySQL?
Use this for MySQL

SELECT COUNT(*) FROM table_name;

What’s the difference between md5(), crc32() and sha1() crypto on PHP?
The major difference is the length of the hash generated. CRC32 is, evidently, 32 bits, while sha1() returns a 128 bit value, and md5() returns a 160 bit value. This is important when avoiding collisions.

How can we find the number of rows in a result set using PHP?
Here is how can you find the number of rows in a result set in PHP:

$result = mysql_query($any_valid_sql, $database_link);
$num_rows = mysql_num_rows($result);
echo "$num_rows rows found";

How many ways we can we find the current date using MySQL?

Give the syntax of GRANT commands?
The generic syntax for GRANT is as following

GRANT [rights] on [database] TO [username@hostname] IDENTIFIED BY [password]

Now rights can be:
a) ALL privilages
b) Combination of CREATE, DROP, SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE and DELETE etc.

We can grant rights on all databse by usingh *.* or some specific database by database.* or a specific table by database.table_name.

Give the syntax of REVOKE commands?
The generic syntax for revoke is as following

REVOKE [rights] on [database] FROM [username@hostname]

Now rights can be:
a) ALL privileges
b) Combination of CREATE, DROP, SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE and DELETE etc.

We can grant rights on all database by using *.* or some specific database by database.* or a specific table by database.table_name.

What is the difference between CHAR and VARCHAR data types?
CHAR is a fixed length data type. CHAR(n) will take n characters of storage even if you enter less than n characters to that column. For example, "Hello!" will be stored as "Hello! " in CHAR(10) column.

VARCHAR is a variable length data type. VARCHAR(n) will take only the required storage for the actual number of characters entered to that column. For example, "Hello!" will be stored as "Hello!" in VARCHAR(10) column.

How can we encrypt and decrypt a data present in a mysql table using mysql?

Will comparison of string "10" and integer 11 work in PHP?
Yes, internally PHP will cast everything to the integer type, so numbers 10 and 11 will be compared.

What is the functionality of MD5 function in PHP?
string md5(string)

It calculates the MD5 hash of a string. The hash is a 32-character hexadecimal number.

How can I load data from a text file into a table?
The MySQL provides a LOAD DATA INFILE command. You can load data from a file. Great tool but you need to make sure that:

a) Data must be delimited
b) Data fields must match table columns correctly

How can we know the number of days between two given dates using MySQL?

SELECT DATEDIFF(NOW(),'2006-07-01');

How can we change the name of a column of a table?
This will change the name of column:

ALTER TABLE table_name CHANGE old_colm_name new_colm_name

How can we change the data type of a column of a table?
This will change the data type of a column:

ALTER TABLE table_name CHANGE colm_name same_colm_name [new data type]

What is the difference between GROUP BY and ORDER BY in SQL?
To sort a result, use an ORDER BY clause.
The most general way to satisfy a GROUP BY clause is to scan the whole table and create a new temporary table where all rows from each group are consecutive, and then use this temporary table to discover groups and apply aggregate functions (if any).
ORDER BY [col1],[col2],...[coln]; Tells DBMS according to what columns it should sort the result. If two rows will have the same value in col1 it will try to sort them according to col2 and so on.
GROUP BY [col1],[col2],...[coln]; Tells DBMS to group (aggregate) results with same value of column col1. You can use COUNT(col1), SUM(col1), AVG(col1) with it, if you want to count all items in group, sum all values or view average.

What is meant by MIME?
Answer 1:
MIME is Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions is an Internet standard for the format of e-mail. However browsers also uses MIME standard to transmit files. MIME has a header which is added to a beginning of the data. When browser sees such header it shows the data as it would be a file (for example image)
Some examples of MIME types:

Answer 2:
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions.
WWW's ability to recognize and handle files of different types is largely dependent on the use of the MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) standard. The standard provides for a system of registration of file types with information about the applications needed to process them. This information is incorporated into Web server and browser software, and enables the automatic recognition and display of registered file types. …

How can we know that a session is started or not?
A session starts by session_start() function.
This session_start() is always declared in header portion. it always declares first. then we write session_register().

What are the differences between mysql_fetch_array(), mysql_fetch_object(), mysql_fetch_row()?
Answer 1:
mysql_fetch_array() -> Fetch a result row as a combination of associative array and regular array.
mysql_fetch_object() -> Fetch a result row as an object.
mysql_fetch_row() -> Fetch a result set as a regular array().

Answer 2:
The difference between mysql_fetch_row() and mysql_fetch_array() is that the first returns the results in a numeric array ($row[0], $row[1], etc.), while the latter returns a the results an array containing both numeric and associative keys ($row['name'], $row['email'], etc.). mysql_fetch_object() returns an object ($row->name, $row->email, etc.).

If we login more than one browser windows at the same time with same user and after that we close one window, then is the session is exist to other windows or not? And if yes then why? If no then why?
Session depends on browser. If browser is closed then session is lost. The session data will be deleted after session time out. If connection is lost and you recreate connection, then session will continue in the browser.

What are the MySQL database files stored in system ?
Data is stored in name.myd
Table structure is stored in name.frm
Index is stored in name.myi

What is the difference between PHP4 and PHP5?
PHP4 cannot support oops concepts and Zend engine 1 is used.

PHP5 supports oops concepts and Zend engine 2 is used.
Error supporting is increased in PHP5.
XML and SQLLite will is increased in PHP5.

Can we use include(abc.PHP) two times in a PHP page makeit.PHP”?
Yes we can include that many times we want, but here are some things to make sure of:
(including abc.PHP, the file names are case-sensitive)
there shouldn't be any duplicate function names, means there should not be functions or classes or variables with the same name in abc.PHP and makeit.php

PHP Interview Questions And Answers Set - 5

PHP Interview Questions And Answers Set - 5

What are the differences between mysql_fetch_array(), mysql_fetch_object(), mysql_fetch_row()?
mysql_fetch_array - Fetch a result row as an associative array and a numeric array.

mysql_fetch_object - Returns an object with properties that correspond to the fetched row and moves the internal data pointer ahead. Returns an object with properties that correspond to the fetched row, or FALSE if there are no more rows

mysql_fetch_row() - Fetches one row of data from the result associated with the specified result identifier. The row is returned as an array. Each result column is stored in an array offset, starting at offset 0.

What is meant by nl2br()?
nl2br() inserts a HTML tag
before all new line characters \n in a string.

echo nl2br("god bless \n you");

god bless


How can we encrypt and decrypt a data presented in a table using MySQL?
You can use functions: AES_ENCRYPT() and AES_DECRYPT() like:

AES_ENCRYPT(str, key_str)
AES_DECRYPT(crypt_str, key_str)

How can I retrieve values from one database server and store them in other database server using PHP?
For this purpose, you can first read the data from one server into session variables. Then connect to other server and simply insert the data into the database.

Who is the father of PHP and what is the current version of PHP and MYSQL?
Rasmus Lerdorf.
PHP 5.1. Beta
MySQL 5.0

In how many ways we can retrieve data in the result set of MYSQL using PHP?
mysql_fetch_array - Fetch a result row as an associative array, a numeric array, or both
mysql_fetch_assoc - Fetch a result row as an associative array
mysql_fetch_object - Fetch a result row as an object
mysql_fetch_row —- Get a result row as an enumerated array

What are the functions for IMAP?
imap_body - Read the message body
imap_check - Check current mailbox
imap_delete - Mark a message for deletion from current mailbox
imap_mail - Send an email message

What are encryption functions in PHP?

What is the difference between htmlentities() and htmlspecialchars()?
htmlspecialchars() - Convert some special characters to HTML entities (Only the most widely used)
htmlentities() - Convert ALL special characters to HTML entities

What is the functionality of the function htmlentities?
htmlentities() - Convert all applicable characters to HTML entities
This function is identical to htmlspecialchars() in all ways, except with htmlentities(), all characters which have HTML character entity equivalents are translated into these entities.

How can we get the properties (size, type, width, height) of an image using php image functions?
To know the image size use getimagesize() function
To know the image width use imagesx() function
To know the image height use imagesy() function

How can we increase the execution time of a php script?
By the use of void set_time_limit(int seconds)
Set the number of seconds a script is allowed to run. If this is reached, the script returns a fatal error. The default limit is 30 seconds or, if it exists, the max_execution_time value defined in the php.ini. If seconds is set to zero, no time limit is imposed.

When called, set_time_limit() restarts the timeout counter from zero. In other words, if the timeout is the default 30 seconds, and 25 seconds into script execution a call such as set_time_limit(20) is made, the script will run for a total of 45 seconds before timing out.

Answer 1:
Create a full backup of your database: shell> mysqldump tab=/path/to/some/dir opt db_name
Or: shell> mysqlhotcopy db_name /path/to/some/dir
The full backup file is just a set of SQL statements, so restoring it is very easy:

shell> mysql "."Executed";

Answer 2:
To backup: BACKUP TABLE tbl_name TO /path/to/backup/directory
’ To restore: RESTORE TABLE tbl_name FROM /path/to/backup/directory

mysqldump: Dumping Table Structure and Data

Utility to dump a database or a collection of database for backup or for transferring the data to another SQL server (not necessarily a MySQL server). The dump will contain SQL statements to create the table and/or populate the table.
-t, no-create-info
Don't write table creation information (the CREATE TABLE statement).
-d, no-data
Don't write any row information for the table. This is very useful if you just want to get a dump of the structure for a table!

How to set cookies?
variable - name of the cookie variable
value - value of the cookie variable
time - expiry time
Example: setcookie('Test',$i,time()+3600);

Test - cookie variable name
$i - value of the variable 'Test'
time()+3600 - denotes that the cookie will expire after an one hour

How to reset/destroy a cookie ?
Reset a cookie by specifying expire time in the past:
Example: setcookie('Test',$i,time()-3600); // already expired time

Reset a cookie by specifying its name only
Example: setcookie('Test');

What types of images that PHP supports ?
Using imagetypes() function to find out what types of images are supported in your PHP engine.
imagetypes() - Returns the image types supported.
This function returns a bit-field corresponding to the image formats supported by the version of GD linked into PHP. The following bits are returned, IMG_GIF | IMG_JPG | IMG_PNG | IMG_WBMP | IMG_XPM.

Check if a variable is an integer in JAVASCRIPT ?
var myValue =9.8;
if(parseInt(myValue)== myValue)
alert('Not an integer');

Tools used for drawing ER diagrams.
Case Studio
Smart Draw

How can I know that a variable is a number or not using a JavaScript?
Answer 1:
bool is_numeric( mixed var)
Returns TRUE if var is a number or a numeric string, FALSE otherwise.

Answer 2:
Definition and Usage
The isNaN() function is used to check if a value is not a number.


Parameter Description
number Required. The value to be tested

How can we submit from without a submit button?
Trigger the JavaScript code on any event ( like onSelect of drop down list box, onfocus, etc ) document.myform.submit(); This will submit the form.

How many ways can we get the value of current session id?
session_id() returns the session id for the current session.

How can we destroy the cookie?
Set the cookie with a past expiration time.

What are the current versions of Apache, PHP, and MySQL?
PHP: PHP 5.1.2
MySQL: MySQL 5.1
Apache: Apache 2.1

What are the reasons for selecting LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, Php) instead of combination of other software programs, servers and operating systems?
All of those are open source resource. Security of Linux is very more than windows. Apache is a better server that IIS both in functionality and security. Mysql is world most popular open source database. Php is more faster that asp or any other scripting language.

PHP Interview Questions And Answers Set - 6

PHP Interview Questions And Answers Set - 6

What are the features and advantages of OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING?
One of the main advantages of OO programming is its ease of modification; objects can easily be modified and added to a system there by reducing maintenance costs. OO programming is also considered to be better at modeling the real world than is procedural programming. It allows for more complicated and flexible interactions. OO systems are also easier for non-technical personnel to understand and easier for them to participate in the maintenance and enhancement of a system because it appeals to natural human cognition patterns. For some systems, an OO approach can speed development time since many objects are standard across systems and can be reused. Components that manage dates, shipping, shopping carts, etc. can be purchased and easily modified for a specific system.

How can we get second of the current time using date function?
$second = date("s");

What is the use of friend function?
Friend functions
Sometimes a function is best shared among a number of different classes. Such functions can be declared either as member functions of one class or as global functions. In either case they can be set to be friends of other classes, by using a friend specifier in the class that is admitting them. Such functions can use all attributes of the class which names them as a friend, as if they were themselves members of that class.
A friend declaration is essentially a prototype for a member function, but instead of requiring an implementation with the name of that class attached by the double colon syntax, a global function or member function of another class provides the match.
class mylinkage
mylinkage * prev;
mylinkage * next;

friend void set_prev(mylinkage* L, mylinkage* N);
void set_next(mylinkage* L);

mylinkage * succ();
mylinkage * pred();

void mylinkage::set_next(mylinkage* L) { next = L; }

void set_prev(mylinkage * L, mylinkage * N ) { N->prev = L; }

Friends in other classes
It is possible to specify a member function of another class as a friend as follows:
class C
friend int B::f1();
class B
int f1();

It is also possible to specify all the functions in another class as friends, by specifying the entire class as a friend.
class A
friend class B;

Friend functions allow binary operators to be defined which combine private data in a pair of objects. This is particularly powerful when using the operator overloading features of C++. We will return to it when we look at overloading.

How can we get second of the current time using date function?
$second = date("s");

What is the maximum size of a file that can be uploaded using PHP and how can we change this?
You can change maximum size of a file set upload_max_filesize variable in php.ini file

How can I make a script that can be bilingual (supports English, German)?
You can change char set variable in above line in the script to support bi language.

What are the difference between abstract class and interface?
Abstract class: abstract classes are the class where one or more methods are abstract but not necessarily all method has to be abstract. Abstract methods are the methods, which are declare in its class but not define. The definition of those methods must be in its extending class.

Interface: Interfaces are one type of class where all the methods are abstract. That means all the methods only declared but not defined. All the methods must be define by its implemented class.

What are the advantages of stored procedures, triggers, indexes?
A stored procedure is a set of SQL commands that can be compiled and stored in the server. Once this has been done, clients don't need to keep re-issuing the entire query but can refer to the stored procedure. This provides better overall performance because the query has to be parsed only once, and less information needs to be sent between the server and the client. You can also raise the conceptual level by having libraries of functions in the server. However, stored procedures of course do increase the load on the database server system, as more of the work is done on the server side and less on the client (application) side. Triggers will also be implemented. A trigger is effectively a type of stored procedure, one that is invoked when a particular event occurs. For example, you can install a stored procedure that is triggered each time a record is deleted from a transaction table and that stored procedure automatically deletes the corresponding customer from a customer table when all his transactions are deleted. Indexes are used to find rows with specific column values quickly. Without an index, MySQL must begin with the first row and then read through the entire table to find the relevant rows. The larger the table, the more this costs. If the table has an index for the columns in question, MySQL can quickly determine the position to seek to in the middle of the data file without having to look at all the data. If a table has 1,000 rows, this is at least 100 times faster than reading sequentially. If you need to access most of the rows, it is faster to read sequentially, because this minimizes disk seeks.

What is maximum size of a database in mysql?
If the operating system or filesystem places a limit on the number of files in a directory, MySQL is bound by that constraint. The efficiency of the operating system in handling large numbers of files in a directory can place a practical limit on the number of tables in a database. If the time required to open a file in the directory increases significantly as the number of files increases, database performance can be adversely affected.
The amount of available disk space limits the number of tables.
MySQL 3.22 had a 4GB (4 gigabyte) limit on table size. With the MyISAM storage engine in MySQL 3.23, the maximum table size was increased to 65536 terabytes (2567 – 1 bytes). With this larger allowed table size, the maximum effective table size for MySQL databases is usually determined by operating system constraints on file sizes, not by MySQL internal limits.
The InnoDB storage engine maintains InnoDB tables within a tablespace that can be created from several files. This allows a table to exceed the maximum individual file size. The tablespace can include raw disk partitions, which allows extremely large tables. The maximum tablespace size is 64TB.
The following table lists some examples of operating system file-size limits. This is only a rough guide and is not intended to be definitive. For the most up-to-date information, be sure to check the documentation specific to your operating system.
Operating System File-size Limit
Linux 2.2-Intel 32-bit 2GB (LFS: 4GB)
Linux 2.4+ (using ext3 filesystem) 4TB
Solaris 9/10 16TB
NetWare w/NSS filesystem 8TB
Win32 w/ FAT/FAT32 2GB/4GB
Win32 w/ NTFS 2TB (possibly larger)
MacOS X w/ HFS+ 2TB